There are numerous difficulties related to drinking water in Mauritania.

According to Lavdal Ould Dadde, a hydraulic engineer and Director of Hydraulics at the Central Directorate of the Mauritanian Ministry of Hydraulics and Sanitation, the biggest challenge is that there are still many communities where water is scarce and where there are no continuous underground water sources. In addition, even when tapped, the water is brackish, so desalination plants would have to be installed. This would be very expensive and a significant investment for all the communities.

The capital Nouakchott, getting most of its water from the river and the Idini area, is waiting for funding for a desalination plant with a capacity of 200,000 cubic meters per day, which would be nothing short of revolutionary for the city.

Alternatives exist to meet the population's needs, particularly for surface, ground, and seawater, through hydraulic mixing. This is a technique for diversifying water supply sources and improving access to potable water in a manner that meets the needs and capabilities of the Mauritanian population. The continuous pumping of water from the river and the Voum-El-Gleïta dam would also help mitigate water scarcity.

In addition, it is crucial to consider diversification of energy sources and hence use mixed energy technology (solar, thermal and electric), especially in more remote areas where there is no need for thermal energy because there will always remain a fuel problem, while solar energy would be available every day. Moreover, in case of an outage, there is always the possibility of installing a generator that has water.

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